11.1 The Experience of Emotion
Especially, Swami Chinmayananda emphasised the role of introspection in five stages, outlined in his book "Self Unfoldment. Introspection also referred to as Rufus dialogue, interior monologue, self-talk is the fiction-writing mode used to convey a character's thoughts. As explained by Renni Browne and Dave King, "One of the great gifts of literature is that it allows for the expression of unexpressed thoughts…" . According to Nancy Kress, a character's thoughts can greatly enhance a story: deepening characterization, increasing tension, and widening the scope of a story. Bickham, thought plays a critical role in both scene and sequel.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the psychological process. For other uses, see Introspection disambiguation. Examining one's own thoughts and feelings. See also: Introspection illusion.
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Trends in Cognitive Sciences. In John Baer; James C. Kaufman ; Roy F. Baumeister eds. Are we free? New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved Kugler July Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
- The Cannon-Bard and James-Lange Theories of Emotion.
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Recall for a moment a situation in which you have experienced an intense emotional response. Perhaps you woke up in the middle of the night in a panic because you heard a noise that made you think that someone had broken into your house or apartment. Or maybe you were calmly cruising down a street in your neighbourhood when another car suddenly pulled out in front of you, forcing you to slam on your brakes to avoid an accident.
Perhaps you remember being flushed, your heart pounding, feeling sick to your stomach, or having trouble breathing. If you think back to a strong emotional experience, you might wonder about the order of the events that occurred. Certainly you experienced arousal, but did the arousal come before, after, or along with the experience of the emotion? Psychologists have proposed three different theories of emotion, which differ in terms of the hypothesized role of arousal in emotion Figure According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion , the experience of an emotion is accompanied by physiological arousal.
Thus, according to this model of emotion, as we become aware of danger, our heart rate also increases. Although the idea that the experience of an emotion occurs alongside the accompanying arousal seems intuitive to our everyday experiences, the psychologists William James and Carl Lange had another idea about the role of arousal.
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion , our experience of an emotion is the result of the arousal that we experience. This approach proposes that the arousal and the emotion are not independent, but rather that the emotion depends on the arousal. The fear does not occur along with the racing heart but occurs because of the racing heart. A fundamental aspect of the James-Lange theory is that different patterns of arousal may create different emotional experiences. There is research evidence to support each of these theories.
The operation of the fast emotional pathway Figure The emotional circuits in the limbic system are activated when an emotional stimulus is experienced, and these circuits quickly create corresponding physical reactions LeDoux, The process happens so quickly that it may feel to us as if emotion is simultaneous with our physical arousal. On the other hand, and as predicted by the James-Lange theory, our experiences of emotion are weaker without arousal. Patients who have spinal injuries that reduce their experience of arousal also report decreases in emotional responses Hohmann, There is also at least some support for the idea that different emotions are produced by different patterns of arousal.
People who view fearful faces show more amygdala activation than those who watch angry or joyful faces Whalen et al. Whereas the James-Lange theory proposes that each emotion has a different pattern of arousal, the two-factor theory of emotion takes the opposite approach, arguing that the arousal that we experience is basically the same in every emotion, and that all emotions including the basic emotions are differentiated only by our cognitive appraisal of the source of the arousal.
The two-factor theory of emotion asserts that the experience of emotion is determined by the intensity of the arousal we are experiencing, but that the cognitive appraisal of the situation determines what the emotion will be. In some cases it may be difficult for a person who is experiencing a high level of arousal to accurately determine which emotion he or she is experiencing.
That is, the person may be certain that he or she is feeling arousal, but the meaning of the arousal the cognitive factor may be less clear. Some romantic relationships, for instance, have a very high level of arousal, and the partners alternatively experience extreme highs and lows in the relationship.
One day they are madly in love with each other and the next they are in a huge fight. In situations that are accompanied by high arousal, people may be unsure what emotion they are experiencing. In the high arousal relationship, for instance, the partners may be uncertain whether the emotion they are feeling is love, hate, or both at the same time.
The tendency for people to incorrectly label the source of the arousal that they are experiencing is known as the misattribution of arousal. The woman asked each man to help her fill out a class questionnaire. When he had finished, she wrote her name and phone number on a piece of paper, and invited him to call if he wanted to hear more about the project. More than half of the men who had been interviewed on the bridge later called the woman.
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In contrast, men approached by the same woman on a low, solid bridge, or who were interviewed on the suspension bridge by men, called significantly less frequently. The idea of misattribution of arousal can explain this result — the men were feeling arousal from the height of the bridge, but they misattributed it as romantic or sexual attraction to the woman, making them more likely to call her. If you think a bit about your own experiences of different emotions, and if you consider the equation that suggests that emotions are represented by both arousal and cognition, you might start to wonder how much was determined by each.
That is, do we know what emotion we are experiencing by monitoring our feelings arousal or by monitoring our thoughts cognition? The bridge study you just read about might begin to provide you with an answer: The men seemed to be more influenced by their perceptions of how they should be feeling their cognition rather than by how they actually were feeling their arousal. On the other hand, they argued that people who already have a clear label for their arousal would have no need to search for a relevant label, and therefore should not experience an emotion.
In the research, male participants were told that they would be participating in a study on the effects of a new drug, called suproxin, on vision. On the basis of this cover story, the men were injected with a shot of the neurotransmitter epinephrine, a drug that normally creates feelings of tremors, flushing, and accelerated breathing in people. The idea was to give all the participants the experience of arousal. Then, according to random assignment to conditions, the men were told that the drug would make them feel certain ways. The men in the epinephrine informed condition were told the truth about the effects of the drug — that they would likely experience tremors, their hands would start to shake, their hearts would start to pound, and their faces might get warm and flushed.
The participants in the epinephrine-uninformed condition, however, were told something untrue — that their feet would feel numb, they would have an itching sensation over parts of their body, and they might get a slight headache. The idea was to make some of the men think that the arousal they were experiencing was caused by the drug the informed condition , whereas others would be unsure where the arousal came from the uninformed condition.
Then the men were left alone with a confederate who they thought had received the same injection. He wadded up spitballs, flew paper airplanes, and played with a hula-hoop.
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He kept trying to get the participant to join in with his games. Then right before the vision experiment was to begin, the participants were asked to indicate their current emotional states on a number of scales. One of the emotions they were asked about was euphoria.
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